RESEARCH AXES



ORAL BIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY AXIS

Infection et immunology
Oral pathologies: host-microorganism reactions during periodontal diseases and candidiasis and dental caries. Through this research theme we are aiming at an understanding of: (1) mechanisms regulating the adaptation and pathogenicity of oral microorganisms (e.g., Porphyromonas gingivalis, Candida albicans, Streptococcus salivarius, microbial biofilms); (2) defence mechanisms, both local (resident cells) and systemic (immune cells), deployed to counter pathologies caused by oral microorganisms; (3) the role of the quorum sensor farnesol in the formation of C. albicans biofilms; (4) the role of ROS/RNS on the host's defence systems; (5) regulation of the expression of virulence genes in Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans; (6) the role of periodonto-pathogenic bacteria in tissular destruction and bone resorption; (7) the role of xylitol in the reduction of dental caries; (8) qualitative and quantitative evaluation of immunological reactivity relating to peri-implantitis, etc. An understanding of interaction mechanisms between the host and microbial agents will allow optimization of early diagnosis and more appropriate preventive and curative intervention.

Tissue engineering and the oral cavity
In recent years, treatment of gingival tissue has become common practice in dentistry. In response to demands from patients for prevention and treatment of tissue loss, many procedures have been developed to palliate lack of autologous tissue and reduce pain at donor sites when performing gingival grafts. In this respect, a number of researchers from our axe are working in the field of tissue engineering. There are a number of research themes related to this field, including: (1) production of autologous epithelial oral structures for the treatment of defective gingival tissue; (2) regeneration of salivary glands using bone-marrow cells; (3) study of the roles of PRPs and BMPs on angiogenesis and bone healing; (4) production of vascularized tissue structures; (5) study of the place of biomaterials in tissue reconstruction in the oral cavity; (7) production of a three-dimensional mineralized model of human dentine from extracellular matrix and odontoblasts.

Production of autologous tissues through tissular engineering is a reliable clinical alternative free of rejection problems. Such tissues could provide permanent treatment with very little or no pain and morbidity for the patient at the time of surgery. These tissue models produced by tissue engineering will also lead to a better understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of a number of oral microorganisms.

Members (11)

- Rubens F. Albuquerque
- Jean Barbeau
- Fatiha Chandad
- Chrisovalantou Cheretakis
- Luc Giasson
- Reginaldo Bruno Gonçalves
- Daniel Grenier
- Hervé Le Moual
- Mahmoud Rouabhia
- Simon D. Tran
- Laurie St-Pierre